What Is Case Study, How To Make It With Simple Examples

What is a Case Study? How to Make with Simple Examples – There are many methods for conducting research. One of them is a case study.

For those who are not familiar, please note that case studies are a type of research method that is quite often used when conducting research on certain scientific fields.

If you are still confused about what a case study and case study research methods are, let’s check out the complete information below.

The following is the definition, how to make up to an example of a case study

Surely many of you have often heard the word case study, right? Especially if you are a student or student. But you may still be wondering, what is a case study?

Of course the word case study is quite familiar to hear, especially if you are studying research.

What is a case study? Do you think you know the meaning of the case study?

In fact, case studies have many meanings and are also often used in qualitative research.

In simple terms, a case study can be interpreted as an in-depth, detailed, and detailed investigation or examination process on a particular or special event that occurred.

There are many scientific disciplines currently using case studies in their research process, both social sciences and exact sciences.

Understanding Case Studies According to Experts

Case study research is a research method based on human understanding and behavior based on human opinions in a predetermined context space.

So that you can add insight objectively regarding case studies, here are some expert opinions that can help you understand the meaning of case studies.

1. According to Feagen, Orum, and Sjoberg

What is a case study? According to Feagen, Orum, and Sjoberg, the case study is a scientific method that has the nature of multi-perspectival analyses.

In addition, case studies also require several points of view to assess and analyze an object of research so that it can produce valid data and information.

Each researcher must pay attention to several relevant aspects such as individuals or groups interacting with each other carefully in order to provide power to weak groups (powerless) who are unable to convey their point of view (voiceless).

2. According to Bomi Walgito

Referring to the thoughts of Bomi Walgito (2010), the case study is a method that has the purpose of investigating (studying and investigating) certain phenomena or events related to a person in the form of a life history that is used as the object of research.

In carrying out case studies, you also need to integrate data and a lot of information through other methods in order to obtain in-depth data and information related to the object being studied.

Bomi Walgitu answered the question of what is a case study briefly and clearly.

3. According to Tellis

Furthermore, an explanation of what a case study is from Tellis (1997) reveals that a case study is a particular method that has a unit of analysis that is oriented towards an action system that does not only depend on certain individuals or institutions.

According to him, the unit of analysis in a case study must be critical and varied in terms of the institutions and individuals concerned.

4. According to Yin

On the other hand, Yin (1996) argues that case study is a process to seek knowledge empirically through investigation and research activities of various events or phenomena in real life.

Case studies also have an approach where the boundaries between phenomena or events and real-life contexts are still unclear.

Yin added that an object of research in a case study is still ordinary considering that there are various sources of evidence that can reveal information.

5. According to Pollit and Hungler

According to Pollit and Hungler, the focus of case studies is to determine a dynamic about the questions that arise that cause someone to think, take an action, or develop themselves.

The focus of the case study is very important considering that the implementation process requires intensive analysis from the researcher.

In addition, case studies should not focus on the progress, status, actions, or logic of the researcher alone.

What is the Purpose of a Case Study?

After knowing what a case study is, of course you need to know what the purpose of a case study is.

Quoted from Deddy Mulyana’s book entitled Qualitative Research Methodology: New Paradigms of Communication and Other Social Sciences, the following are some of the objectives of the case study:

  1. To provide information regarding the views of the subject under study
  2. To provide a complete description that is similar to what the reader experiences in everyday life.
  3. To show the relationship between researchers and research subjects.
  4. To find internal consistency which is not only style consistency and factual consistency, but also trust.

Why Choose Case Study Research Methods?

When choosing a case study research, it means that the researcher wants to explore what information can finally be learned or drawn from a case, both singular and multiple cases.

Stake (in Denzin and Lincoln, eds. 1994; 236) calls it “what can be learned from a single case?”

In order for a case to be explored, the meaning of the researcher must be clever in sorting and choosing what kinds of cases are worthy of being appointed as research themes.

The weight of the quality of the case should be the main consideration. This means that not all issues or cases at the individual, group or institutional level can be used as case study material.

Likewise with regard to questions, not all questions can be raised to become research questions.

There are certain conditions, as explained earlier, in order for an event to qualify as a case in case study research.

Likewise with certain conditions so that a question can be raised as a research question.

What are the Types of Case Study Research?

Just like other research methods, case study research is also divided into several types.

The types of case study research have differences from each other, both in terms of hypotheses and from the thesis to be proven.

These types of case studies can later be applied in various fields, ranging from business, psychology, art, and so on.

The following types of research are case studies that you must know:

1. Explanatory Case Studies

The first type of case study is an explanatory case study which is generally used by researchers when they can no longer find or have control over the phenomenon under study.

So, researchers will have the question “why” or how” the phenomenon can no longer be controlled.

The main purpose of the explanatory case study itself is to show the data that cannot be explained earlier, as well as to carry out a description of the causal investigation.

Explanatory case studies focus on real-life phenomena. The application of this type of case study is suitable for phenomena or groups of individuals that cannot or cannot be explained.

Things like this can be said to be normal considering that every individual has one or two variables that cannot be explained.

2. Exploratory Case Studies

The next type of case study is an exploratory case study whose research method aims to answer the “what” and “who” questions.

In this research method, the data collected by the researcher comes from two sources, namely exploratory data and additional data that can be obtained by researchers from interviews, experiments, questionnaires, and so on.

Exploratory case studies are very suitable to be applied to formal and large-scale research in order to help researchers get more background information than ordinary case studies.

In addition, exploratory case studies also aim to give researchers more time to digest and understand the information obtained during the research implementation process.

3. Descriptive Case Study

The next type of case study is a descriptive case study which is applied with the aim of analyzing a particular sequence of events that occurred in the past.

In this type of research, it covers topics in the field of culture or the field of history.

Descriptive case studies have the aim of comparing new theories or findings with existing theories and findings in the same field.

So that researchers can find out which information is most correct by looking at the analysis of the sequence of events.

What are the Forms of Case Study Research Based on Research Problems?

To answer what a case study is based on research problems, according to Creswell, case studies are divided into three forms, seen from the problem or case being studied.

The three forms of case study research are:

1. Single Instrumental Case Study

The first form of case study is a single instrumental case study.

It is known that a single instrumental case study is a form of case study research conducted by using a case to provide an overview of an issue.

In the form of this one case study, the researcher will try to find an issue that attracts attention to be studied.

Then use a case to be guaranteed a means or instrument in compiling a detailed description of the case.

So from an issue, researchers can find cases caused by that issue.

The case will be described or described in detail by the researcher.

This is done so that readers of the results of the study can know that the case is an important instrument in an issue.

2. Multiple Case Studies

The next form of case study is the plural case study. Contrary to the previous form of case studies, multiple case studies use more than one case to be studied or studied.

Simply put, multiple case studies are research that uses multiple issues or multiple cases in a study.

In order for discussion and research activities to be more focused, the focus of multiple case studies is on one or several cases that accompany the issue.

Or it can also focus on one case and then examine several issues in that one case.

Research using the form of plural case studies is quite complex because it involves many issues and more cases within these issues.

3. In-depth Case Studies

The last form of case study is an in-depth case study.

It is known, this form of case study is applied to a case that has a specificity or characteristics and also uniqueness that is quite high compared to cases in general.

So, since the beginning the case has stolen the attention of researchers to be studied.

At first glance, in-depth case studies are similar to narrative research.

However, in-depth case studies have a more detailed procedure on the case and also the link or relationship with the surrounding environment in an integrated manner.

How to Make Research with Case Study Method?

Answering what a case study is is not difficult. However, after knowing what a case study is, then how do you make the research?

Referring to the book by Prof. Dr. H. Mudjia Rahardjo, M.Si entitled Case Studies in Qualitative Research: Concepts and Procedures, below is the order of how to make case studies that you can follow:

1. Choose a theme, topic and case

The initial stage in making a case study is to choose a case that is part of the body of knowledge of your current field or major.

If you are a student of the Communication Studies Department or Study Program, then choose a case that is indeed the area of ​​study for that field.

2. Collect reading materials

After you find a case, then please collect literature or reading material.

This literature or reading material can be in the form of journals, scientific magazines, results of previous research, books, newspapers and others.

3. Formulate the focus and research problem

The next stage is to formulate the focus and research problem so that you can concentrate on one topic.

From this formulation, you can dig up important information, not just information that is not scientifically based.

4. Collecting data

After formulating the focus and research problem, then you must collect research data.

You can get this data from several methods, ranging from documentation, engagement observations to interviews.

You also need to measure the amount of data needed, the time when data collection begins and ends, determine the informants to be interviewed, and determine when and where the interviews are conducted.

5. Processing data

The next stage is processing the data. Make sure the data you collected earlier is clear.

Then, proceed with compiling the data, carrying out coding, classifying the data, and correcting unclear interview answers.

6. Analyze data

This one stage is the most important part, considering that you will get research findings.

The ability to analyze data will depend on how broad the theoretical insight of the researcher is to the field being studied, research experience, and lecturer guidance.

7. Conducting theoretical dialogue

For masters and doctoral candidates, case study research is conducted through a dialogue of findings with theories that have been discussed in the literature review section.

Meanwhile, for scientific works such as thesis, research findings are in the form of descriptive fact finding on the basis of theories that have been studied during lectures.

8. Triangulate findings (confirmability)

The next step is to triangulate the findings or confirmability.

Researchers can do this by reporting research findings to interviewed informants.

9. Concluding the research results

Then, continue to conclude the research results. For research such as a thesis, the conclusion of the case study must contain the facts in the field descriptively according to the research question (data description).

For postgraduate research (thesis), the conclusion of the case study must present the facts according to the research question and develop a theory related to the research question.

Meanwhile, for the doctoral level (dissertation), the conclusion of the case study contains the two points above and also presents new findings, in the form of concepts, formulas, models, or theories.

10. Reporting research

The last step in making a case study is writing a research report.

This is necessary as a form of accountability for research activities in the public interest.

Well, that was the information that we can summarize for you regarding what case studies are and case study research methods.

Hopefully the information about case studies and the methods above can add to your insight regarding the case study research method!

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